What is antifa。 Who are Antifa?

What is antifa and what does the movement want?

Such high barriers to entry necessarily keep numbers low. They're troubling tactically because conservatives use antifa's violence to justify—or at least distract from—the violence of white supremacists, as Trump did in his press conference. " Eleanor Penny, an author on fascism and the far-right, argued against Chomsky that "physical resistance has time and again protected local populations from racist violence, and prevented a gathering caucus of fascists from making further inroads into mainstream politics". President Trump voiced his support on Twitter. Many of its activists oppose the very notion of a centralized state. Comments may take up to an hour for moderation before appearing on the site. "the anonymous person or people behind QAnon". 4 Antifa is funded by liberal financiers like George Soros. For human beings to be truly free, they maintain, existing governments must be replaced by local, voluntary associations that organize social and economic life through. That hate speech is not free speech. In September 2020, when the investigation was still ongoing, Brian Levin had noted that if Reinoehl was implicated, it would mark the first case in recent history of an antifa supporter being charged with homicide. Paulas, Rick November 29, 2017. The logo as it appears on a flag held by an antifa protester in , Germany, 2008 When Italian dictator consolidated power under his in the mid-1920s, an oppositional movement surfaced both in Italy and countries such as the United States. The plan does not include any mention of other organizations or of prosecuting. , Fascists go beyond viewing particular categories of people as inferior, based on gender identity, race and ethnicity, religion and sexual orientation. " Levin added that "[t]he biggest threat is still, far-right white supremacist groups. The movement has no unified structure or national leadership but has emerged in the form of local bodies nationwide, particularly on the West Coast. Antifa is not, however, affiliated with Joe Biden, the Democratic Party or its leaders. What about the fact they're charging with clubs in their hands, swinging clubs, do they have any problem? " For Bray, "[t]he vast majority of their activities are nonviolent. Their motto was "We go where they go" by which they meant that they would confront activists in concerts and actively remove their materials from public places. The term had its origins in the anti-fascist groups that sprang up in Germany and the U. Anti-fascists conduct research on the far right online, in person, and sometimes through infiltrations; they dox them, push central milieux to disown them, pressure bosses to fire them… "But it's also true that some of them punch Nazis in the face and don't apologize for it. Bellows, Kate July 6, 2017. Anti-fascists of the movement tend to be grouped on the leftward fringes of the US political spectrum, many describing themselves as socialists, anarchists, communists or anti-capitalists. following a protest outside the home of founder , who has been described by the as "a major supporter of President Donald Trump and his policies". " Notable actions Along with activists, antifa groups were among those who protested the 2016 election of. denying their targets the opportunity to speak out in public; obstructing their events and defacing their propaganda; and, when antifa activists deem it necessary, deploying violence to deter them. Bauer, Shane August 25, 2017. 5 Antifascists are the 'real fascists. But, these incidents are instigated by one actor against another. 3 minute read A poster with the inscription 'Justice for George' and 'Antifa on the offensive' is held by a protester during a demonstration under the motto "Youth Day - Fight for your future. After all, Atomwaffen has murdered several American citizens and had its members arrested with bomb-making materials, while Antifa has smashed store windows and engaged in street brawls. " Attorney General William Barr on Sunday also blamed antifa and other similar groups over violent protests — which erupted after Floyd, 46, when a Minneapolis police officer knelt on his neck for several minutes — calling the acts "domestic terrorism. Even today, many anti-fascists follow anarchist principles. Journalist makes a distinction between "self-described members of the group" and "anyone who shows up in the streets to protest against fascists", arguing that "Antifa and antifascism are no more synonymous than being a member of Black Lives Matter and believing that black lives matter. Historian and magazine editor wrote that "[n]on-leftists often see the left as a disruptive, lawless force. " The antifa movement has grown since the. According to The Guardian, the only death resulting from an anti-fascist attack recorded in the database was that of Willem van Spronsen, who was shot dead by police while allegedly a ICE detention center in. " They believe that law enforcement is complicit in white supremacy, and that democracy is in danger. Like antifa, there are no formal leaders or organization, and most of the action seems to take place online. President Trump pointed a finger at what he called the "alt-left" following the rally in Charlottesville, Virginia in 2017. For example, she says, a man ran off protesters in McAllen, Texas. The groups ignored the park's denial of permit due to "clear and present danger to the public health or safety", but this was thwarted when Facebook and Twitter terminated their organizing accounts and pages, and by one group leader's retreat due to "fears of violence from counter-protesters". They're anarchists and communists who are way outside the traditional conservative-liberal spectrum. The SPLC also reported that antifa members "have been involved in skirmishes and property crimes, 'but the threat of lethal violence pales in comparison to that posed by far-right extremists. That word can be an inexact term, but generally antifa activists see fascism as the of biological and social inequalities between people. Analyses and studies Questions on how effective antifa is and whether it is a reasonable response have been raised and discussed by news media. " professor Shirley Jackson stated that antifa had made things more difficult for by causing a loss of focus. These individuals have set out to sow discord and upheaval, rather than join in the righteous pursuit of equality and justice. Here's what antifa is, what it isn't, and what you need to know. The doctored image, actually from a 2009 riot in , was altered to make it look like someone wearing an antifa symbol attacking a policeman with a flag. I do think that more fiscal response is needed. Protestors threatened to smash the cameras of anyone who filmed them. " As of June 9, 2020, none of the 51 people facing federal charges were alleged to have links to antifa. 2s ease-out;font-family:BWHaasGrotesk-75Bold-Web,Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:16px;line-height:1. Interestingly, any push to terrorism among Antifa supporters would likely be met by opposition from within the movement. Writing in The New York Times last week, Sen. Bray, Mark 2017. The vast majority of antifa militants are radical anti-capitalists who oppose the Democratic Party. In 2002, ARA disrupted a speech in Pennsylvania by , the head of the white supremacist group , resulting in a fight and 25 arrests. " In regard to , Bray says that it is about "telling people that they have a Nazi living down the street, or telling employers that they're employing white supremacists", adding that "after Charlottesville, a lot of the repercussions that these khaki-wearing, tiki-torch white supremacists faced were their employers firing them and their families repudiating what they do. "Terrorism is an inherently political label, easily abused and misused," the organization said in a tweet. Five myths is a weekly feature challenging everything you think you know. Here's what we know about the decades-old, leaderless group. By pointing his finger squarely on Antifa, the president has put the spotlight on a fringe, radical anti-fascist movement and branded it a terrorist organization. My own research has found that a are women, people of color, members of LGBTQ communities, or otherwise have some characteristics fascists seek to control or eliminate. The term is used to define a broad group of people whose political beliefs lean toward the left -- often the far left -- but do not conform with the Democratic Party platform. Alizadeh, Meysam; Weber, Ingmar; Cioffi-Revilla, Claudio; Fortunato, Santo; Macy, Michael 2019. In the United States, some anti-fascist groups , which evolved out of the old Anti-Racist Action Network. The parade was ultimately canceled by the organizers due to safety concerns. " Historian was "worried that antifa's methods could feed into what she said were false equivalencies that seek to lump violence on the left with attacks by the right. Reinoehl was later by federal authorities as they moved to arrest him. "We should be wary of those who are more distressed about alleged violations of the speech of fascists than the actual violence they perpetrate," he says. ] during 2016 and 2017, far-left movements in the U. Other antifa groups are a part of different associations such as NYC Antifa or operate independently. Twitter later said the account had been linked to the white nationalist group Identity Evropa. They're troubling strategically because they allow white supremacists to depict themselves as victims being denied the right to freely assemble. By 2017, the FBI and the DHS reported that they were monitoring suspicious antifa activity in relation to terrorism. However, shoving white nationalists to the ground, punching them in the face, or hitting them with sticks does not constitute the level of violence typically associated with terrorism. In fact, the president has willingly exploited this low-level violence to and raise funds for his re-election campaign. Such comparisons stem from the misguided : that ultimately political extremes meet. " The American Civil Liberties Union, however,. In these formations, protestors wear black clothes and masks to create a more intimidating presence and make it harder for the police to identify individuals for arrest and prosecution. And so we go to cause conflict, to shut them down where they are, because we don't believe that Nazis or fascists of any stripe should have a mouthpiece. Trump's rise has also bred a new sympathy for antifa among some on the mainstream left. reported that "the term [ antifa] is a potent one for conservatives" because "[i]t's the violent distillation of everything they fear could come to pass in an all-out culture war. In May and June 2020, repeatedly promoted hoaxes as part of ' coverage of antifa, including publishing a false document she described as an antifa battle plan and claiming that a joke about was evidence of a clandestine antifa hierarchy. soldiers on the streets of American cities. Most antifa activists, says Mark Bray, a history professor and author of Antifa: The Anti-Fascist Handbook, focus on trying to identify the names, addresses, and jobs of white supremacists who are active on the internet, and "outing" them to their employers and the public. "It sounds like you're hitting a lot of the areas that could definitely benefit from help," Powell said, when asked about the proposal at a Senate Banking Committee hearing. In an appearance on Fox News's in June 2020, Trump's personal attorney claimed that "Antifa" as well as "Black Lives Matter" and unspecified communists were working together to "do away with our system of courts" and "take your property away and give it to other people", asserting without evidence that they receive significant funding from an outside source. Wray stated that "racially motivated violent extremists, such as white supremacists, have been responsible for the most lethal attacks in the U. " Three August 2020 DHS draft reports did not mention antifa as a domestic terrorism risk and ranked white supremacy as the top risk, higher than that of foreign terrorist groups. Suerth, Jessica May 31, 2020. According to a local rabbi, antifa counter-protesters "chased [the white supremacists] off with sticks. " A main goal is to try to deny fascists a public forum, which is why they turn out in numbers to physically confront neo-Nazis, the KKK and white supremacists at public demonstrations. Inciting street brawls, such as what , is not part of their main activities, she says. Beinart, Peter July 4, 2019. '" Law enforcement and officials In June 2017, the antifa movement was linked to "anarchist extremism" by the. On September 25, 2020, the Trump administration released details on a "Platinum Plan for Black America", under which "Antifa" and the would be prosecuted as terrorist organizations. However, not all anti-fascist violence is limited to batons and fisticuffs. What happened in Charlottesville? Internal decision-making is based on group consensus and. The far-right group cancelled an event in San Francisco the same day following counter protests. Other antifa groups in the United States have other genealogies. Devega, Chauncey July 20, 2017. According to Bray, while "confident that some members of antifa groups have participated in a variety of forms of resistance" during the protests, it is "impossible to ascertain the exact number of people who belong to antifa groups. The White House responded in 2018 that federal law does not have a mechanism for formally designating domestic terrorist organizations. For instance, anti-fascists often work to find out where fascist groups and people are active in an area, and then share that information with the wider community, bringing that activity to public attention. After a white supremacist into a crowd of counter-protesters, killing a woman named , Mr. Cookie banner We use cookies and other tracking technologies to improve your browsing experience on our site, show personalized content and targeted ads, analyze site traffic, and understand where our audiences come from. Activities According to Brian Levin, director of the Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism at the , antifa activists feel the need to participate in violent actions because "they believe that elites are controlling the government and the media. In 2007, , likely the first group to utilize the name antifa, was formed in by former ARA members. They will both, plus others, be able to interfere in our 2020 Election with our totally vulnerable Unsolicited Counterfeit? Antifa: Scope and Tactics: Today's antifa argue they are the on-the-ground defense against individuals they believe are promoting fascism in the United States. " That came one day after he said "the violence and vandalism is being led by antifa and other radical left-wing groups. Attorney General William Barr says they're to blame for looting in cities. Antifa — short for "anti-fascist" — is the name for loosely affiliated, left-leaning, anti-racist groups that monitor and track the activities of local neo-Nazis. According to its website, its main focus is "any work that prevents fascist organizing, and when that is not possible, provides consequences to fascist organizers. Fortunately, the Antifa movement in the United States has been less violent than its European counterpart. Some of the groups, such as the 13-year-old Rose City Antifa in Portland, Oregon, the oldest in the U. Local action But the antifa label is most often applied to smaller-scale groups of like-minded people who live in the same community, working to prevent fascists from threatening their targets and from attracting new followers. In Charlottesville and at many subsequent events held by white supremacists or right-wing extremists, antifa activists have aggressively confronted what they believe to be authoritarian movements and groups. Antifa targets:• Individuals involved in the movement tend to hold , , and views, subscribing to a range of left-wing ideologies such as , , , , and. The movement is loosely affiliated and has no chain of command, with antifa groups instead sharing "resources and information about far-right activity across regional and national borders through loosely knit networks and informal relationships of trust and solidarity. Some scholars argue that antifa is a legitimate response to the rise of the far right and that antifa's violence such as is not equivalent to. Finally, anti-fascists do not practice a single protest tactic. "We would have been crushed like cockroaches if it were not for the anarchists and the anti-fascists," he said. Given its use of violent tactics and desire to scare white nationalists, should Antifa be labeled a terrorist organization? This assessment was replaced with one in 2019 which states that "Antifa is a movement that focuses on issues involving racism, sexism, and anti-Semitism, as well as other perceived injustices. As of August 2017, approximately 200 groups existed, of varying sizes and levels of activity. Cammeron, Brenna August 14, 2017. Bray says the rise of fascism in the 1930s demonstrates that it was a mistake to allow such groups to air their views in hopes that public opinion would blunt their growth. Antifa participants also protected and various clergy from attack by white supremacists, with West stating he felt that antifa had "saved his life". Before he could cause much damage, the 68-year-old man was shot and killed by the police. Mallett, Whitney May 10, 2017. " Joseph Bernstein from says that antifa activists also wear masks because "they fear retribution from the far right and the cops, whom they believe are sympathetic if not outright supportive to fascists. The Guardian quoted Heidi Beirich, a co-founder of the Global Project Against Hate and Extremism, as saying that "Antifa is not going around murdering people like rightwing extremists are. Chauncey Devega of described antifa as an organizing strategy, not a group of people. Perliger, Lauren R. In 2013, the "most radical" chapters of ARA formed the which has chapters throughout the United States. Modern antifa politics can be traced to opposition to the infiltration of Britain's scene by in the 1970s and 1980s, and the emergence of in Germany following the. The were founded in Europe and North America between the world wars, and were primarily organized by anarchists, communists and socialists — three groups that were frequently targets of fascist violence. is among those who have accused Soros of funding antifa, while other conservatives, such as Rep. The following month, Antifa activists and other protesters spray-painted graffiti, broke windows, and threw Molotov cocktails during a demonstration at the University of California, Berkeley, to prevent the alt-right provocateur, , from speaking. Antifa reject racism but use unacceptable tactics. To do so, we draw on interviews that one of us conducted with a handful of activists who identified themselves as anti-fascists or anarchists, along with studies and documents written by activists and supporters. Gittlitz and Natasha Lennard have also argued against Chomsky and others, citing the 2017 events at Charlottesville and 's suspension of his college tour in March 2018, respectively, as "a victory" and as "a sharp rebuttal to the glut of claims that antifa practices serve as a gift to the far right. WASHINGTON AP — FBI Director Chris Wray told lawmakers Thursday that antifa is an ideology, not an organization, delivering testimony that puts him at odds with President Donald Trump, who has said he would designate it a terror group. Charges were eventually for the bulk of the defendants, while others were by juries. Antifa: Definition and History: The anti-fascist protest movement known as antifa gained new prominence in the United States after the white supremacist Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, VA, in August 2017. " The Treasury secretary also said he planned to talk on Tuesday afternoon with House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, the California Democrat, about fresh stimulus and a bill to avoid a government shutdown, adding that he has spoken more than once this week with Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, the Kentucky Republican, and has kept President Donald Trump updated. There is little evidence of a chain of command or a stable leadership structure. researcher discovered an image of British actress portraying a battered woman in a 2007 anti-domestic violence campaign that had been re-purposed using fake antifa Twitter accounts organized by way of. In 2012, militants from Anti-Racist Action, loosely associated with antifa, stormed a Chicago-area restaurant where a white-supremacist group was meeting, attacking with baseball bats and hammers and injuring several people; five of them pleaded guilty to armed violence. Despite antifa's opposition to the Democratic Party and liberalism, some commentators have accused their adherents of being aided by "liberal sympathizers" and "affiliated with the Democratic Party" as well as being "a single organization", "funded by liberal financiers like ", "mastermind[ing] violence at protests", and that "Antifascists are the 'real fascists'", with Bray citing those as examples of five myths about antifa. This is supported by researching and tracking fascist organizations. writers such as labeled as "antifa". "It's a lot of a kind of private investigator work that sometimes spills out into the streets with confrontations," Bray said. Cruz accused "Antifa protesters" of "organizing these acts of terror" and called for "systematic law enforcement targeting Antifa and other terrorist groups". Some "anti-anti-fascists" on the left have argued that antifa attack a symptom of rather than combating itself and in doing so distance themselves from. Most of them engage in commonly accepted forms of political activism. However, the ADL stated that "it is important to reject between the antifa and the white supremacist groups they oppose", noting that right-wing extremist movements are much more violent and have been responsible for hundreds of murders in the United States while "there have not been any known antifa-related murders. Anti-fascists conduct research on the far right online, in person, and sometimes through infiltrations; they dox them, push central milieux to disown them, pressure bosses to fire them… "But it's also true that some of them punch Nazis in the face and don't apologize for it. They perceive their opposition as very much in personal and collective self-defense. ] On the far left, Antifa represents a fast-growing crusade designed to confront all forms of fascism, principally the aforementioned groups but also, at times, law enforcement. A similar fake image circulated on social media after the in 2017. " Antifa activists commonly dress in black. " According to Mark Bray, "members hide their political activities from law enforcement and the far right" and "concerns about infiltration and high expectations of commitment keep the sizes of groups rather small. Personal and collective self-defense The arts have long been a part of anti-fascist efforts, including by American singer-songwriter Woody Guthrie in the 1940s. President Trump is blaming a radical leftist group for organizing violent protests and attacks on police. " Activists typically organize protests via social media and through websites. Though the United States does not have a domestic terrorism law, there is an underlying statute that the president could use to sanction Antifa. Chiu, Allyson November 8, 2018. Academic sources:• Today, antifa activists focus on harassing right wing extremists both online and in real life. " describes antifa as "known for causing damage to property during protests. Mark, Michelle August 23, 2017. Trump's remarks were similar to false social media rumors during preceding months that planes and buses full of antifa gangs were preparing to invade communities, allegedly funded by. in turmoil, we take a closer look at the movement. " Civil rights organizations According to the ADL , "most established civil rights organizations criticize antifa tactics as dangerous and counterproductive. A DHS draft from September 2020 reportedly named groups as the biggest terror threat to America. " Ideology Individuals involved in the antifa movement tend to hold , , , and views, subscribing to a varied range of ideologies. " But the idea of designating antifa a terror group worries some civil rights advocates. It has not persisted over time. These physical confrontations are better understood as spontaneous clashes between Antifa supporters and their white supremacist rivals, including. Antifa has no single spokesperson but rather presents its movement as a collective of nameless vigilantes, typically outfitted in concealing masks and black combat gear, ready for battle. Bernd, Candice September 7, 2017. If you want to read more like it, you can try six risk-free issues of the magazine. Antifa members have taken part in the anti-racist marches that have emerged in cities nationwide. Rushed into print after the US president said there were 'fine people on both sides' of the Charlottesville clashes, Mark Bray's guide provides tactics for those hoping to 'defeat the resurgent far right. Higgins remarked to the that "[t]his was a transparent and quite pathetic attempt, but I wouldn't be surprised if white nationalist groups try to mount more sophisticated attacks in the future". Rather, it is a loose network of groups and individuals who coordinate their anti-racist activism on an ad hoc basis in different areas both within and outside the United States. " On September 18, 2020, Trump publicly criticized FBI Director and hinted that he could fire him over Wray's testimony about antifa and. NBC Bay Area sat down with several militant Antifa protesters [. Such overlap makes it difficult to distinguish anarchism from anti-fascism. Friedersdorf, Conor August 31, 2017. Stan, Adele August 14, 2017. Republicans often portray antifa as a highly organized group of "terrorists" worthy of national watch lists. Some antifa adherents keep a very low profile, while other local groups venture to give themselves a more public profile with a name and a. " Antifa activists also conduct research to monitor far-right activity, hold conferences and workshops on anti-fascist activism, distribute literature at book fairs and film festivals as well as advocating ways of "fostering sustainable, peaceful communities" such as working in. Academic described antifa as "a major gift to the right", arguing that "the movement was self-destructive and constituted a tiny faction on the periphery of the left. Activists of the group said through a bullhorn that Carlson was promoting hate and chanted "We will fight, we know where you sleep at night! We ask you to keep your comments relevant and respectful. While most counter-protestors tend to be peaceful, there have been several instances where encounters between antifa and the far-right have turned violent. I think Americans can and should have confidence in our election system and certainly in our democracy. Ideologically, antifa in the United States sees itself as the successor to anti-Nazi activists of the 1930s. In some cities — such as Berkeley, California, and Portland, Oregon — local chapters are active and well organized. Antifa is anti-government and anti-capitalist, and their methodologies are often perceived as more closely aligned with anarchists than the mainstream left. To learn more or opt-out, read our. Nafeesa Syeed of reported that "[t]he most-tweeted link in the followed by the researchers was a petition to declare Antifa a terrorist group". They function in some ways like private investigators; they track neo-Nazi organizing across multiple social-media platforms. ] Antifa, a far-left anti-fascist movement. Oppenheim, Maya August 22, 2017. Different localities have antifa populations of different strengths, but antifa are also sometimes willing to travel hundreds of miles to oppose a white supremacist event. Though the origins of the movement are hard to pinpoint, experts believe that it can be traced back to Germany and Italy, where it gained momentum before the Second World War as backlash to the rise of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. " According to , "Antifa is short for anti-fascists. After broke out amid the protests in Minneapolis following the death of George Floyd, Wray said: "We're seeing people who are exploiting this situation to pursue violent, extremist agendas — anarchists like ANTIFA, and other agitators. Yet, short of this violent trajectory, it is hard to imagine classifying Antifa — with any degree of accuracy — as a terrorist organization. In October 2017, a conspiracy theory claiming that antifa groups were planning a violent insurrection or the following month spread on and was advanced by far-right figures including , , , and. The hearing before the House Homeland Security Committee — established after the Sept. Antifa activists wear masks to hide their "identity from protestors on the other side who might people they disagree with or from police and cameras" and for philosophical reasons such as the beliefs that "hierarchies are bad and that remaining anonymous helps keep one's ego in check. Their problems with fascism are much more fundamental. Beinart, Peter September 6, 2017. The group also posted addresses of Carlson's brother and a friend who co-founded The Daily Caller. By clicking on the sign up button you consent to receive the above newsletter from Postmedia Network Inc. Choices have consequences" and includes the hashtag PunchANazi. " Alexander Reid Ross, a lecturer in geography and an author on the contemporary right, has argued that antifa groups represented "one of the best models for channeling the popular reflexes and spontaneous movements towards confronting fascism in organized and focused ways. But the Trump administration's own Department of Homeland Security and FBI don't appear to view antifa as a. Mallin, Alexander June 3, 2020. In June of that year, antifa forces turned out to protest a pro-Trump free-speech in Portland. That authority rests on no democratic foundation. According to Voice of America, "the Justice Department has not charged any left-wing groups in connection with the civil unrest, and extremism experts say while the threat of violence from antifa is real, organized groups on the far right pose a greater threat of violence. They believe Carlson supports and promotes a white nationalist agenda on Fox News, a charge Carlson denies. One neo-Nazi was convicted of homicide when he rammed his car into a crowd, killing protester Heather Heyer, 32. You cannot subpoena an idea or a movement. " According to Colin Clarke and Michael Kenney, such as , demonstrations against the provocateur and the clash with and at the "reflects many Antifa supporters' belief that Trump is a fascist demagogue who threatens the existence of America's pluralistic, multi-racial democracy. After the , similar hoaxes falsely claimed that the shooter was an antifa "member"; another such hoax involved a fake antifa Twitter account praising the shooting. "We would have been crushed like cockroaches if it were not for the anarchists and the anti-fascists," said activist and Harvard professor Cornel West. ] The people preventing Republicans from safely assembling on the streets of Portland may consider themselves fierce opponents of the authoritarianism growing on the American right. In the late 1980s and 1990s, ARA activists toured with popular punk rock and skinhead bands in order to prevent , neo-Nazis and other assorted white supremacists from recruiting. More recently, many key organizers behind the Anti-Racist Action Network and other groups have drawn on anarchist ideas in coordinating their activism. We try to be very clear and precise with how we use these terms. Even in the United States, this tradition of militant antifascism has a long history under the banner of the. Last July, attacked an Immigration and Customs Enforcement detention center in Tacoma, Washington, with a rifle and incendiary devices.。 。 。 。 。 。 。

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Who are Antifa?

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Antifa (United States)

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What is Antifa and is it dangerous?

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Who are Antifa?

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What is antifa? An ideology, not a group, testifies FBI director Wray

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Antifa: What is it and what does the movement want?

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